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Canine Coronavirus ties with Canine Parvovirus as the leading viral causes of
diarrhea in puppies. Clinically, the two infections can be indistinguishable.
But they are quite different in their final effect - Canine Coronavirus rarely
kills the puppy while Canine Parvovirus often does.
Canine Coronavirus is widespread in the dog population worldwide. It invades the
rapidly growing cells of the intestinal lining causing nausea, lack of appetite,
vomiting and diarrhea. It is primarily a disease of puppies. Coronavirus is shed
in the feces of infected dogs for months after initial ingestion. It takes one
two three days from the time the puppy is exposed to an infected dog's stool for
it to become visibly sick. The virus appeared suddenly in Europe in 1971, and
some scientists speculate that Canine Coronavirus may have mutated from another
coronavirus that causes a similar disease in pigs.
are slight (antigenic) differences between coronavirus strains isolated from
puppies with diarrhea. So puppies and dogs immune to a particular strain of
Coronavirus may not be immune other strains of the virus.
dogs probably become infected with coronavirus and recover without getting ill
or after a sickness too mild for owners to notice. We know this because most
adult dogs have antibody to this disease which indicates that they were, at one
time, exposed to the virus.
Canine Coronavirus is an RNA-type virus and a member of the Group I
Coronaviruses. When the virus is viewed under an electron microscope the
particles have a halo-like crown of projections or “Corona”.
Coronavirus is surrounded by a fatty protective coating which makes it rather
easy to kill with detergent and solvents that dissolve fats. This is in contrast
to Parvovirus, which is very tough and hard to kill. Coronavirus is spread from
dog to dog through infected feces.
What Symptoms Should I Look For?
main sign of Coronavirus in puppies is watery diarrhea. It differs from the
diarrhea produced from eating trash in not containing much mucous. It differs
from the diarrhea produced by Parvovirus in that it rarely contains digested
blood. Some pups with the disease vomit, others do not.
Coronavirus diarrhea is often less violent than Parvovirus diarrhea. However,
there is enough overlap of symptoms so that coronavirus can not be
differentiated from parvovirus by clinical signs alone.
Coronavirus diarrhea typically lasts 2-4 days and very few puppies die from it.
If puppies do die, there are usually other problems occurring at the same time,
such as parasites, dual infection with parvovirus or malnutrition.
How The Disease Progresses:
Within 2-3 days of ingesting the virus, coronavirus can be found in the upper
two-thirds of the pet's small intestine. In very rare cases the virus may also
invade the spleen, liver and brain and lungs.
During this same period diarrhea begins. Diarrhea usually lasts 2-7 days. The
diarrhea is due to mal absorption of nutrients and a deficiency in digestive
Most infected dogs shed coronavirus in their stools for 6-9 days. But shedding
can be prolonged in some pups. Most puppies recover after a few days of diarrhea
and poor appetite. However, puppies less than three months of age may die of the
virus if they are weakened in some other way. This could be due to a second
disease, being the runts of the litter or come from over-bred, poorly maintained
Puppies with coronavirus rarely have a fever. This is true of many infections in
puppies because they loose body heat so rapidly.
When I feel the tummies of these puppies they are often bloated and tight. I can
usually feel gas-filled tender loops of intestine and enlarged mesenteric lymph
nodes in their abdomens.
How Can My Pup Be Treated?
There is no specific treatment your veterinarian has that kills canine
coronavirus. What we try to do is support the pup until its own immune system
conquers the virus. We do this by correcting the dehydration that accompanies
all severe diarrheas. If the puppy can drink, pedialite is a good oral liquid to
give them. If they are sicker, the fluids need to be given intravenously or
For The Diarrhea:
give give medicines that relax intestinal spasms such as metoclopramide. In
severe cases, we might also prescribe loperamide, oral opiods or diphenoxylate (Lomotil).
Compounds that protect the inner surfaces of the inflamed intestines can also be
Common ones include: famotidine (Pepcid ), cimetidine (Tagament) and
sucralfate (Carafate). But we can not use them until the vomiting has been
Medications that stop vomiting are called anti-emetics. We often inject one
called metoclopramide (Reglan). Chlorpromazine (Thorazine); and prochlorperazine
(Compazine) are also used.
Sometimes, Pepto-Bismol in small amounts is helpful.
Antibiotic do not destroy coronavirus. But we often give them to give the pup
protection from other bacteria that may attack its weakened system.
For General Support:
Chilled puppies need additional sources of heat such as a heating pad or heat
lamp. Many of these puppies have internal parasites that complicate the disease.
If I detect protozoa in fecal samples I place the pups on metronidazole (Flagyl).
If I detect hookworms I worm the pups with pyrantel pamoate . I let their
intestines heal for two days before I give them food by mouth. When I do, I give
them frequent small amounts of a bland intestinal diet like as Canine i/d or EN
or a home made blend of pureed chicken a rice.
How Can I Prevent This Disease?
your puppy vaccinated against coronavirus at 9 and 12 weeks of age. Adult dogs
do not require yearly boosters.
sure it is free from intestinal worms and receiving a quality diet. Coronavirus
takes advantage of weakened puppies - so anything you do to give it a low
stress-high quality environment will help protect it from coronavirus as well.
dog to dog contact or contact with objects that are contaminated with the virus
prevents infection. Do not take your new puppy to places that other dogs visit
until its puppy shot serries is completed.
Crowding, dirty facilities, grouping large numbers of dogs, and all types of
stress make outbreaks of this disease more likely. Enteric Coronavirus are
moderately resistant to heat, acids and disinfectants but not nearly so much as
disease is a big problem in large puppy “mills” where sanitation and husbandry
are poor. Most cases are brought to me by owners of puppies that were acquired
at these breeders or in pet stores selling the puppies.
outbreaks could have been prevented by quarantining newly-arrived puppies and
sanitizing the facility with a 1:20 dilution of ordinary household bleach.
Canine Respiratory Coronavirus
now know that a second type of dog coronavirus exists. This strain, known as
Group II, affects the dog's respiratory tract rather than its intestine. It
causes coughing, sneezing and a nasal discharge. It is one of the organisms
involved in what we call "kennel cough" or CIRD. When it is a problem, it is
usually working in combination with other disease organisms. It is seen most
often when large numbers of dogs are housed together such as in boarding kennel,
animal shelters, dog shows and dog race tracks.